sudhan tribe

Sudhan Tribe of Kashmir : Their History & Origin

Finding the origin of the Sudhan Tribe of Azad Kashmir Pakistan is a minefield for anyone trying to reveal the truth. This is because of the extreme dislike for anything affiliated with Hinduism, because of the treatment meted out by Hindu dominated Indian forces in Kashmir valley closely.

I will try to be as objective in my conclusions regarding the Sudhan tribe of Azad Kashmir Pakistan, as possible.

Sudhnoti area of Poonch

Sudhan tribe is concentrated around Kotli, Poonch, Sudhnoti, Bagh districts of Azad Kashmir of Pakistan and is one of the most educated groups of people in Pakistan. It is quite natural that now they want to know their real history, origins based on evidence. So, here is my bit.

Recorded History of Sudhan Tribe, Kashmir, Pakistan

Lt Col JM Wikely, a colonial British officer in his book, Punjabi Musalman mentions that the “The Sudhan have pride of race and look on themselves as superior to any of the other tribes of Poonch, but they cannot be considered high-class Rajput, which term, notwithstanding their claim to Pathan origin, they apply to themselves.” [Verified by me]

The only evidence that brings the Sudhan tribe anywhere close to being called Chibali or Pahari Rajput is mentioned here in this recent research document. Even in this document, the “Sudhan” word is nowhere mentioned [It is an opinion piece].

In his book, Castes and Tribes of Poonch by Muhammad Din Folk, “Sudhan is shown as one of the 12 communities in Hazara during the Vedic age. Sudhan is described as a Rajput Tribe. Sud race is settled in East Punjab”. By this account, Sudhan’ should have been in the tens of millions by now, whereas they are only close to 1 million. [Reference verified by me]

Muhammad Din Folk in Castes and Tribes of Poonch by “Sudhan is shown as one of the 12 communities in Hazara during the Vedic age. Sudhan is described as a Rajput tribe. Sud race is settled in East Punjab”, but is also a very ancient reference.

Major G Carmichael Smyth in his book, a history of the Reigning Family of Lahore states that “in the year 1832, several independent hill-tribes inhabiting the northwestern regions of Punjab were reduced into subjection to the Lahore State (of Sikh)” These were the Doondh, Soodhun (Sudhan), Suthee, Hoteels (Mughal), and Murdiall (Mughal) tribes. The Soodhun tribe inhabited a large tract of land on the eastern bank of the same river opposite the Doondh, and numbered about forty thousand souls” [Reference verified by me]

Frederic, Jammu & Kashmir Territory, 1875 states that Sudhan is an important and high caste of Chibhal Rajput. Parl speaks a Dogri dialect. [Not verified yet by me]

Captain E.G. Calvin, writes in his first settlement report on Sudhnuti published in 1905 that Sudhan claim descent from the Sudhzai tribe of Afghanistan.

Hindu ancient references to Sudhan

There is mention of the word Sudhan in Ancient Hindu Texts Rig Veda Sinhita by HH Wilson as ” Sudhan-Wan the leader of the sacrifice” Sudhan word in Sanskrit means ‘Son of God’ or a slight variation Suthan means “very rich”; this reference is too ancient for a fairly recent tribe. [Reference verified by me]

Thakar Kahan Singh, Tarikh Rajgan-e-Jammu-o-Kashmir & Rajputan-e-Punjab 1930 states that the Sudhan Chander Bansi dynasty ruled from the capital of Sudhnoti. Sudhan nation is Rajput. The majority of them have become Muslim.

According to D Mackenzie, India, 1994, Sudhan-van, is synonymous with Indira, the King of Gods. He was the founder of Vedic religion and his Pando dynasty did rule Kashmir for thousands of years. [Reference not verified yet by me]

In Ebbettson’s book, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab & NWFP 1911, under the main heading of Brahmins of Khatris, ‘Sudan’ is shown as one of the 12 tribes in Hazara in the Vedic Period (1300-1000 BC). In the present day, Sudhan is described as a Rajput Tribe in Rawalpindi, and Sud race is settled in East Punjab. [Not verified yet by me]

According to Colonel Muhammad Khalil, Gazetteer of Kashmir & Ladakh (1890 mentions Sudhan as “Lehr Muni (ancestor of Sudhan) son of Bawa Muna (Chief of Katas Tirath) migrated from Katas to Poonch in the 11th century. One of his descendants Sudh Sain/Pal is the patriarch of Sudhan. Sudhan Chander Bansi dynasty ruled from the capital of Sudhnuti”. I could not find this reference myself, but this reference is also debunked because as per my estimates, the Sudhan tribe must have originated 1650 AD, as they were about 30,000 in 1837.

Ancient Hindu scriptures especially in Nepal refer to “Sudhana” (pure), quite frequently. This indicates that Sudhan word could have its etymology from Hindu Scriptures. 

Recent research on the Sudhan tribe

The Sudhan Revolt (The News 19 October 1997.) by Sardar Saleem Khan States that “Sudhan, and important and high caste of Chihalis-Rajputs (Aryans)” but no evidence is presented.

Pre-partition, the people of the Valley of Kashmir considered the people of Rajouri-Poonch as “Pahari Gujjar”, a general term they used for them and were considered backward. [Muhammad Zubair Kails Asian Resonance 2013 “Identity Crises and Perceptions of Regional Disparity: A Study of Rajouri and Poonch Districts (J&K)”]

Zahur Ul Haq, Kashmir, 1991 states that Sudhan Rajput, known for their fighting valor extended up to the Rawalakot and Rajouri near Jammu. [Reference yet to the verified]

Sudhan population was 25300 in the Census of 1838. [Reference not verified yet]

Sir Denzil Ibbetson mentions “Sudhan” in his genealogy tree Castes and Tribes of Punjab and North Western Frontier province, but I couldn’t make any sense about it.

origin sudhan kashmir pakistan

Col Khalil also believed that the Sudhan tribe is “by origin Mohyals (Sara swat Brahmins) and takes wives from the group in Gujarat, while in Rawalpindi the five superior sections (Sudhan, Sikhan, Bhaklal, Bhog, and Kali) used to give their daughters to Mohyal Sarsuts”; [I couldn’t find this reference].

Sardar Saleem, The Sudhan Revolt, The News dated 19 Oct 1914 believes that the Sudhan migrated to Sudhnoti in the 14th century.

Captain Ashraf, Alnasabul Qabail Akbaria, 1997 states that Jassi Khan, the recorded ancestor of Sudhan, conquered Mong in 1300 AD. Saddulla Khan (Sudho Khan Patriarch of Sadozai) born 1585 is shown as the forefather of Jassi Khan. [Not verified my me yet] This is where the Soddozai controversy has started. There is no evidence to support the fact that Soddo Khan is the same patriarch of the Soddozai tribe of DI Khan, which is so far away.

Dr. Ganda Singh, Ahmad Shah Abdali 1977 states that “Assadulla alias Soddo, patriarch of (Durrani) Soddozai was born in 1585 AD”

Durrani (Soddozai) ruled Kashmir from 1752 to 1818 AD but now are only in live in pockets in Qila Saifullah Baluchistan and DI Khan, none in Kashmir.

Sudhan Revolt by Shamus Khan Sudhan

“Sudhun” is also mentioned by Gulab Singh Dogra in his account of his massacre of Sudhan Rebels and their families in 1837, especially Shamus Khan, the self-proclaimed tribal leader of a lose confederate of clans, who was brutally killed by Dogra Rulers of the time and his lieutenants’ Sabz Ali and Malli Khan skinned alive at Mong. [Reference posted below].

origin sudhan kashmir pakistan

Sudhan tribe DNA results

Sudhan DNA tests in recent times show the origin of these people is mostly around Kashmir and Indus Valley rivers, that is, northwest India, but not Afghanistan or Central Asia at all. There are some linkages with Sikhs too, which supports the Tej Bahadur theory.

The Sudhan gene pool has been mixed with that of several rulers that took over Srinagar Kashmir like the Durrani, Turks, Sikh, Greek, Europeans, Eurasians, and even Bengalis. This also shows up in the DNA reports as a very small percentage.

Sudhan DNA Sample 1

Sudhan DNA Results Sample 1
Sudhan DNA Results Sample 1 ; Father is a Sudhan from Rehara and mother is a Sudhani from Rawalakot Bazar. Results show that this individual’s ancestors have always lived in the same Azad Kashmir region with 97% results.

origin sudhan kashmir pakistan

Sudhan DNA Results Sample 2
Sudhan DNA Results Sample 2. Mother and Father are both Sudhan from Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir and muslim

Statistical Results of Sudhan origin

HarappaWorld runs a website dedicated to finding origins of people based on cold mathematical calculations.

I posted the same question to him and his replies are pasted for your reference

Sudhan Tribe origin based on Mathematical Calculations
Sudhan Tribe origin based on Mathematical Calculations 1: Sudhan are predominantly converts from local Brahmans
Sudhan tribe origin based on mathematical results 2
Sudhan tribe origin based on mathematical results 2; Results indicate Sudhan are predominantly converts from local Brahmans and have not come from outside

The Yahoodi reference of the Sudhan Tribe, Kashmir Pakistan

Jamshed Yazdani, Kutch Qoam e Yahud kae baray main Jang 25 Oct 73, states that General Afghana, the commander of King Solomon’s army, had forty sons, namely Suri, Salma, Sudan, are worth mentioning. [Reference not yet verified] This reference is too ancient to be valid. Also, how come the Yehuda have never approached the Sudhan tribe for information?

Hindu and Sikh Soodhun in India

Sardar Ibrahim Khan in his book “Kashmir ke jang-e-Azaadi” writes that Hindu Brahmin Sudhan of Sudhnuti were usually poor farmers like the muslim Sudhan. The lucky Hindu Sudhan migrated to Rajouri, Poonch and Jammu in 1947 and ones that stayed back, converted to Islam.

Navaldeep Sharma in his blog post “” writes that the Hindu Sudhan met their relatives that had converted to Islam with deep affection, after 1947. 

Captain Sudhan (Hindu), 1981 “Hindu Sudhan live in Jammu and proudly display Sudhan as their surname”

DFO Ghulam Ahmad Sahib, 2000 “Hindu Sudhan were our class fellows in Poonch city”

There were many Sikh and Hindu Sudhan that converted after 1947, inside Pakistan

Sudhan tribal customs

The Punjabi dialect, homogeneity, treatment of women, cold weather adaptation, and laid back lifestyle of Sudhan do not resemble the rigid societal structure of Pathan, especially blood feuds of Pathan’ and treatment of women.

Sudhan do not speak a word of Pashto, or Kashmiri — it is mostly a Hindko-Punjabi mix dialect

Sudhan never had a lineage of the Sardari system that is typical of socially superior people. This shows that this tribe has lived in these mountains of Sudhnoti since its beginnings around 1675 AD.

Soodhun tribe and Sadozai caste

The Suddozai tribe of KPK is of Durrani origin and is a lot smaller than the 0.8 million Sudhan of Kashmir. By pure mathematics, the Sudhan tribe cannot originate from the away smaller tribe.

The Sudhan do not even look like Suddozais that are presently settled in the DI Khan district of KPK and Afghanistan. Suddozai is short, stocky, dark-eyed, dark-haired, and with heavy-set eyebrows. Sudhan is the opposite, tall, lanky, light-haired, and light-eyed, chiseled brows and reddish in complexion.

Pashtun invaders in Kashmir 1947

The repeated revolts against Sikh Ranjit Singh and Hindu Dogra Gulab Singh after 1800 indicate that this tribe owned the land they reside in for centuries and were not invaders.

The Sudhan people pushed back the Dogra Army from their land, Sudhnoti and here is where the line between Indian and Pakistani Held Territory of Kashmir Lies.

It is called The Line of Control on Kashmir.

Also see 

Neelum Valley Line of Control

Independent Kashmir Options

India Pakistan Wars

History of conversion of Hindus and Sikh in Kashmir

The first wave of conversion from Hinduism in Kashmir took place in 1350 AD, but that would be too early for a young tribe like Sudhan.

I could not find any mention of the Sudhan tribe in the history of Mughals up to 1700 when Muslims started losing power to Hindus and Sikh backed by colonial British.

Mention of the Sudhan tribe appears after 1830 when the British needed subjects that despised the Raj of Sikh and Hindus in India and could work for them in their World Wars.

Sudhan tribe Characteristics

This tribe has always been desperately poor and illiterate, unlike the residents of the Kashmir valley. This indicates they could be nomadic people, settled in harsh snow-covered mountains for safety.

Sudhan elders even today believe in several Hindu myths and legends. Furthermore, their knowledge of puritanical Islam was very limited.

Findings on Sudhan based on the evidence above

There is evidence to suggest the ruling Sikh and Dogra Hindus of Kashmir never got along with these Pahari tribes of Poonch and Rajouri that were predominantly Sudhan, so they were deleted from the official genealogy records and scheduled castes in Indian Held Kashmir.

As per Colonel Khalil, “Sudhan were converted to Islam by Aurangzeb”; that could be plausible as Aurangzeb had a beef against the Sufi order that was pervasive in Kashmir till 1600 AD, which Aurangzeb had vowed to eliminate.

A group of Kashmiri Brahmin was converted to Islam in 1675 by Aurangzeb Alamgir during the slain Guru Tej Bahadur episode. Could Sudhan be this group of Kashmiris?

So mass conversion did take place in 1675 AD, right about the estimated time of the formal origin of the Sudhan tribe by Jassi Khan.

It is highly unlikely that the Hindu Dogra Rajput would not discriminate and marginalize another Brahmin Rajput caste, even if they had converted two centuries back. Therefore, something does not add up in the Rajput theory.

Soddo Khan (Assadullah) born in 1585 AD could be the earliest recorded patriarch of the Sudhan tribe and is a close predecessor of Jassi Khan who was given the nom de guerre of Sudhan, not as a clan lineage.

Soddo Khan of the Soddozai people is from another time and is being confused with Asadullah Khan of Mong.

The only question remaining is whether the Sudhan tribe was once Brahmin? I have no direct evidence to support this claim.

Conclusion : Who are the Sudhan tribe ?

Summing up all the evidence I have to date, it seems like the Sudhan tribe is neither Pashtun, nor Sadozai and is … BUY THE BOOK for just $ 2 and support Sudhan research, please

If anyone has real evidence before 1650, please write it in the comments, I’ll update this page for everyone.


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  1. Appreciate your struggle .. But you need more work to improve it …also encounter all those methods that used by modern historians and anthropologist…

  2. Very interesting article, however there are many things that need to be considered and talked about before claiming that the Sudhans aren’t of any pashtun ancestry.

    I have done further research on this topic, and have found the following information. If I am free, I may add more onto what I’m saying and provide more evidence for my claims, if what I’m saying does not suffice.

    First of all, there were two Sado/Sadu Khan’s in history, and they both are often mixed up. You see, one was Saadullah Khan (Sadu Khan), and Assadullah Khan (Sado Khan)

    Assadullah Khan (Sado Khan) was born in 1558 AD, and obviously if he was the “ancestor” of Jassi Khan that would make no sense as Jassi Khan had invaded sometime in approximately the year 1300 AD, and thus it would mean that the Sudhans/Suddozais have a bogus claim and are not of pashtun origin, but this is not true.

    Saadullah Khan (Sadu Khan) was born in 961 AD, and was the son of Atman. Also, Zai means “Son/Son of” in pashto. Sudhans are actually related to this branch, which is referred to as “Uthmanzai/Athmanzai”. Also, ‘Sudhan’ was the title given to Jassi Khan after his conquest due to his benevolence and fairness to the conquered people. Sudhan is a word of sanksrit origin, and roughly translates to “Just, Fair, Brave”. Suddozai/Sudhozai/Sudhan are names often alternated by Suddozais to refer to themselves. A grave for Jassi Khan is also present near Mang, further solidifying that he did in fact exist.

    Furthermore, there is also a building/area present near the top of Mang, where the many locals of the region could come and talk about their problems. This was built by Jassi Khan, who named it ‘Sudhan’. This can still be found where it was originally built.

    Not only that, there are graves hundreds upon hundreds of years old, dating as back to the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries with no “Shamshan Ghatts” If you’re not already aware, a ‘Shamshan Ghatt’ is a crematory ground where dead bodies are brought to be burned. Had the Suddozais been Hindus, be it a Brahmin clan or a Rajput one, why would there be such old graves? Wouldn’t they have burned the bodies, per their customs, and in turn wouldn’t these people have been taken to Shamshan Ghatts, instead of graves in which muslims bury their dead? Where are the Shamshan Ghatts? Where are the ruins of any? I want to see what you hypothesize based on this information.

    In addition, there was an investigation by Abrar Niaz and Muhammad Rustam Khan to locate the exact grave of Jassi Khan, and they have created an entire research paper with evidence to back up where the grave of Jassi Khan is. They cleared up suspicion that between two sites present on Jassa Pir, one of them might have been the grave of Jassi Khan. They refer to the two sites as Site 1 (which proved to be the actual grave), and Site 2 (Which was confirmed to be a Baithak, which was used for praying purpose, and not his grave.) I will be linking the paper here, if you want to take a look at it.

    How can you explain the grave site and baithak? Will you claim that these are fabricated? If Jassi Khan never existed, then who is this person and why were they buried here instead of being burned? Why is this baithak (prayer site) present?

    Not only that, in 1947, during the Kashmiri crisis the Pashtuns immediately helped the Suddozais in their struggle against the Dogra Kingdom. I will cover this topic a little bit, but it definitely is in need of more research and I think it could certainly help your paper.

    You see, the Suddozai struggle and rivalry against the Dogra’s lasted quite a while, so I believe it would be best to first talk about how it started.

    The Sikh Empire, led by the Dogras, had conquered the region of Kashmir. The Kashmiris were under strict taxation and exploitation by the Sikhs, who were in need of this to continue to fund their war machine. This did anger the Kashmiris and other conquered peoples from other regions as well, but there is not much they could do, except for the Suddozais. The Suddozais had always been a dissident and martial tribe, and they were very angry at the Sikhs for their especially harsh treatment.

    The Suddozai’s revolted in 1837, after the death of Hari Singh Nalwa, who was the commander-in-chief of the Sikh Empire’s army. He was an infamous conqueror most notably known for his brilliant roles in the captures of Kashmir, Attock, Multan, Sialkot, and Qasur. However, he met his end in the battle of Jamrud against the Afghans. His death signaled weakness across the empire, an opportunity that the Suddozais exploited. The revolt began with success, notably led by Shams Khan Suddozai, a former follower of Dhian Singh. Mainly, the lands of Poonch were captured by the rebels. Gulab Singh was sent out with the responsibility of crushing this revolt. His forces camped near Kahuta, and attempted to spark disunity between the insurgent forces. Eventually, this proved to be a successful tactic, resulting in the assassination of Shams Khan, and afterwards the rebel forces.

    The punishment decreed by the Sikhs onto the now defeated Suddozais was considered very harsh even for the times. An estimated number of 28 (the number varies, but 28 is what seems to be the major consensus) chiefs and several other high-ranked members of the tribes were flayed alive near a large tree present even today in the city of Mang. According to British and Suddozai sources, other captured rebels had their limbs amputated by axes in an extreme show of vengeance. Flayed skins of some of the high ranked members of the clan were shown off on gallows as warnings to others. The local population suffered even after this, with increased persecution, tax collection, and crime enforcement being some of the stricter punishments.

    A couple of years later, Kashmir was captured by the British in the First Anglo-Sikh war. However, a Dogra family bought Kashmir from the British afterwards and became a princely-state. The Suddozais still faced strict persecution and taxation from this new Kingdom. Some of the taxes considered unnecessary and overburdening the already suffering populace in the Kingdom’s era were: Taxes on every window, Hearth, Animals such as Buffalo and Sheep, salaries of taxmen, rent of tax offices and much more. The rural Suddozai populace was not that rich, and the many different amounts of taxes were quite crushing on the people.

    The region of Azad Kashmir isn’t one with that many economic opportunities due to a variety of factors, and this taxation forced many people to seek to join the British Army. An estimated number of 60,000 – 65,000 Suddozais served in the British Army and brought with them combat skills and weapons. The British demand for soldiers had dramatically increased during the era of the World Wars, and thus were more than eager to accept a martial clan of people with Pashtun origin. After the return of these men, the Dogra Maharaja of Kashmir was terrified at the prospect of Muslims, especially the Suddozais who had already revolted before having such expertise and weaponry in their hands. As a result, attempts to cull the arms the Suddozai’s possessed were made.

    In July of 1947, the Suddozais of Poonch, Sudhanoti, Bagh and parts of other surrounding lands were sent an ultimatum to surrender their arms. The Suddozai’s affected by this decree did not want to give up their weapons to the Dogras and would begin to contact various Pashtun tribes to provide them with weaponry. Now the main question becomes, how were the Suddozais able to contact the Pashtuns at this point? Apparently, this came through as a result of Suddozai matrimonial relations with Pashtun tribes, and Pashtuns recognizing them as people of some Pashtun descent, which meant that they were eager to sell off weaponry at cheap prices to the Suddozais. However, I have not found proper sources for the matrimonial relations part, but I wouldn’t be surprised if this was true. I think I may have to go digging around some books to find something about this.

    Anyways, in September of 1947, a Muslim massacre started in Jammu, which enraged the Suddozais to no end. They prepared to start an all out rebellion against the Dogra’s after approximately 110 years since the 1837 revolt despite it ending quite badly for the Suddozais. Now you tell me, why did the Suddozais have such a tenacity to fight if they were a forcefully converted Brahmin tribe? How did they possess such martial skills? It doesn’t make much sense, now does it?

    After this, the Suddozais would contact other Kashmiris in the region, offering them a prospect of an all-out rebellion, and thus began the 1947 Poonch Revolt. And the rest is history. Once again, I ask you, where did the ‘Suddozais’ obtain their martial skills, if they in fact are a forcefully converted people with a false sense of identity?

    From my research, I’d say that the Suddozais are a mixed Pashtun-Pahari-Kashmiri people. Pashtuns arrived in large number alongside Jassi Khan, and mixed in with the peoples of the region. With this, the distinct Sudhan/Suddozai identity was created. Suddozais kept the martial culture of their Pashtun ancestors, while were linguistically dominated by the mixtures of Pahari-Kashmiri people who mainly spoke the Pahari language, which by itself has many different dialects. Suddozai people may have preserved the language of Pashto for a couple of centuries, but it was inevitably erased by the dialects of Pahari that everyone else in the greater region spoke.

    I hope you update your article and/or write a new paper highlighting and talking and answering these issues that I have brought up. I look forward to it, and thank you for attempting to find the true history of our people, but I believe the history is all but clear.

  3. Completely agree with your research. Pukhtoons never arrived in such huge numbers in poonch. 2ndly no mentioned of khel instead they have sub clan mangral, sungral which is an Indian way to describe sub clan. 3rdly pukhtoon sell their women for marriage nd these people’s have no such things…

  4. Sir i am doing reserach on sudhan tribe from 2,3 Years and i found Your article most compact and infact we are mohyal brahmins.. Send me your Facebook or any other social media id so we Connect more often. it will be a honour to learn from intellects like you.

    1. Thanks for the input. you can contact me on this number 03005111523.

    2. Sohail sahb Mr Wali Imran no doubt did very good work he gave some references in this blog but one reference of Muhammad uddin folk is not correct. I read that book and I still have that book. Muhammad uddin folk thoughts were completely opposite to this he wrote that sudhans are actually saduzai.
      i haven’t read any other book which Mr WIK mentioned in this blog except this one and I hope Mr WIK will recheck his references again
      ( I am talking about book tareekh e aqwam e poonch ” caste and tribe of poonch”)

      1. sir muhammad din folk sb first repeated my findings and then tried to prove Sudhan are like Pathan. He even mentioned Sudhan resembling Afridi, which is unacceptable. Since Afridi have a reputation of being highway robbers and claiming money for their daughters in marriage- which sudhan do not

  5. I think this article is useless. I am from a Sudhan tribe and still unaware of the research which writer claimed that conducted on us. It’s a request to the writer of this article please don’t mix our tribe history with the other so called Indian /Subcontinent tribes.

    1. Please do share your research. the purpose is to keep an open mind. not restrict our thought process

    2. Abu Rehan says:

      Iam also sudhan this article is useless please contact me I want to connect with you and talk a alot about our cast 9622117693

    3. Shamma khan says:

      I m agreed with you we are not belong to any rajpoot ND gujr ND what ever yes we belong sadoo Khan forth father of jasii khan we are not Sikh nor Hindu

  6. khanzad a AMJAD KHAN says:

    Dear sir,
    you are witting base less things.
    iam from sudhan tribe.
    our 100%custom related to afghan society like khanger Jurga etc, marriages all other custom of life. lot of Pushtu words in pounchi phari physical appearance.only matched with Afghanistan. above 700 hundred years old graveyard of sudhan here in rawalakot poonch sudhanti are there
    jassay khan grave also on jassa pir at top of moung all shows that sudhan are afghan origin. you dont know about single custom of sudhans. after DNA of the hero of soldier maqbool husain , sabir husssian sabi writer of sameed suddozai lot of other person from thorar pachoot and plandri we blood are 86% matched with afghan .so its now out of question sudhan are indian cast.

    1. Thanks for the input. Many Sudhans have gotten their DNA analyzed, but they say otherwise. It is always enlightening to read other point of views.

    2. Shamma khan says:

      I agreed ND I wanna knows writters family history

  7. Dear commentator
    I have few questions to ask
    1. Our research team recently discovered Jassi Khan (12th century) grave at Jassa Pir top. (Remember Brahman burried their deads).
    If he was converted to Islam then it must be written in history, as he was a tribal leader not an ordinary person.
    2. How a huge number of peoples can be converted to Islam when there is no evidence of any Muslim preacher at that specific time frame came to Kashmir.
    3. You are just mixing Sudhan title with Sudhoon tribe of Rajputs. The fact is Jassi Khan was given an honorary name by local Soodhan tribe after his dominant and warrior leadership.
    4. This tribe has different body structure and facial features then that of Brahmans.
    5. DNA has probability of 10% in scientific research.
    How could you conclude on its basis.

    1. Thanks for the insight. and if you have authentic studies related to it do share.

  8. About the point raised by some commentators regarding the so called “invitation/request” of us(Sudhans) to Pathans for joining the “Freedom war” of 1947, I think we should see things in perspective.

    There had been at least two uprisings against Maharaja in the Poonch area before 1947 and one of which was probably in 1938 and needed a whole garrison of mahraja army to maintain the order while during the previous uprising locals mostly Sudhans were brutaly crushed. So the misconceptions and then famous” tapsi te thuss karsi” stories were fabricated and the reality was against the general conception that it were Pathans who started the war of freedom

    There were at least 60,000 to 80,000 British Indian Army veterans present in the Poonch and Mirpur region who participated and WW1 and WW2(majority). My grandfather was WW1 veteran and his brother died in WW2. Most of poonch area that made up, so called Azad Kashmir of today was liberated by local rebels in what is known as “1947 Poonch rebelions”. Pukhtoons invaded the kashmir on 22 Octuber 1947, the same time the provisional “Azad” government was established and on other hand on 26th/27th Octubre Mahraja announced state accession to India Half of the Lashkars were sent with plan to help local rebels liberate “Jammu” and other half were sent to fight in Valley. Both of these area has no Sudhan population
    There are historical accounts as well local elders description of “looting”, alive burning of women and Childern, rapes of minorities as well killing cattle of local Muslim population linked to “Lashkars” and “Satti” tribe settled on the other side of river Jehlum that Brigadier Henry Lawrence Scott, the chief of state army launched a former complaint to Pakistani government.
    4. Religious personalities like “Peer of Manki Sharif” had publicly asked to participate in holy war in Kashmir

    5. Major General Mohammed Akbar Khan(Colonel Akbar at that time) lead the war from army front although he did negate any involvement in engaging Pathans to the war

    So while comunal fire was already set throughout the sub-continents, Pathans were systematically pushed to get involved. May be Sardar Ibrahim involvement to pursue them had some minor rule but it has nothing to do with Sudhans asking their Pathans brothers to help them fight their own war. Also there were people including Muhammad Ali Jinnah who were wisely not very found of this idea

  9. I think it a marvelous and a genuine attempt by the author of the article. You call it coincidence or it because that this is the possible and honest outcome if ones findings are based on facts through available material; that I was doing the same at the same time on my account and at least I found no evidence that could hint that we Sudhan are Pathan decedents.
    Just to let know that some of the references marked by him as not-verified are already verified by me. That includes:
    1: Frederic, Jammu & Kashmir Territory, 1875 states that Sudhan is an important and high caste of Chibhal Rajput. [Not verified yet by me]
    Page 58. Chapter III (INHABITANTS OF THE OUTER HILLS): “Besides these, there are many races among the Chibhalis whose
    origin it is not easy to discover. An important and high caste is
    one called Sudan ; it prevails in the part between Punch and the
    Jhelam ; it has a position among theso Muhammadans nearly liko
    that of the Mians among the Dogras. A general name for this
    and the other high castes of Chibhal is Sahu.”

    2:In Ebbettson’s book, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab & NWFP 1911
    No reference to Sudhan/Sudan/Sodan/Sodhan is found, however Sodhazai are mentioned twice

    1. Thank you for appreciating the effort and adding to the information. I will include it in the research

  10. Zafarullah Khan says:

    Sudhans have Pashtun (or Pathan) ethnicity and setteld in Sudhanoti and Poonch district of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan the tribe is known for his bravery and greatest share in the subsequent fighting and sacrifices for Kashmir’s history. They are traditionally descendants of Jassi Khan, an Sadozai Pashtun warrior and troops who landed in Southern Poonch some centuries ago and fought for their existence. Their Pashtun ethnicity can be seems more on their fair complexion, blue eyes, and brown hair, and of course, the fighting qualities which they share with Pashtuns.

  11. Zafarullah Khan says:

    very useful article but I have some points for proving Sudhans are Sodozais.

    1) Populations of Sudhans in Poonch (Bagh, Rawalakot and Sudhnoti are more than 1.5 millions. Conversion of so many Bhremens into Muslims is impossible.

    2) It seems practical and feasible that more than 5000 Afghan led by Jassi Khan invades Poonch around 12th or 13th century and populations were increased to 1.2 million in these five or six hundred years. But is is impossible that conversion of Hindus Bhremens into Sudhans.

    3). However, it is possible that some bhremens which might be converted into muslims and their sub cast is Soodhans. Soodhans and Sudhans are different.


    1. If Nawab Jassi Khan is the alleged forefather of the Sudhans, who claim this legendary figure as their own, then it simply can not be that he was also a descendant of the Saddozai Abdali tribe, which was founded 200 years in Afghanistan after his arrival in the AJK region.

  12. Ghazi Sodhun says:

    Carmichael Smyth writes that they were largely converted in the 17th century to Islam.
    Sodhuns are indigenous to Poonch/Sodhuni. Native sons of the soil. The Kashmiri called them Frontiersmen. The Hindoostanis called them Mountainmen.
    They lived in a Homestead/Farmstead living.
    Like the Junkers of Germany or the Cosacks of Southern Russia, they were soldiers of fortune.
    Sodhuns sole profession for the last 1,000 years has been war.

    p.s SodhunGali is named after Sardar Ghanga Ram Sodhun. And Ganga chooti is his namesake. He opened the first school in Poonch.

    The population census in Kashmir 1891 AD put them as Hill Brahmans.

    There is a huge number of Sodhun Brahmans in tge US also. And a sizable number in Poonch city.

    1. Thank you for reading and adding on to it.

  13. Ghazi Sodhun says:

    The Population Census of Kashmir 1891 AD calls them Hill Brahmans.

  14. I have left my results on qura page go on qura ul see my results there i have posted

    1. OK. Do subscribe this blog

  15. I have done 1 year research and have proff

    1. Please email the evidence so that everyone can benefit.

      1. Raja Habib Jalib says:

        It is very really a great work, I myself a student of history have studied a lot but I am sure too that Sudhan or sons of soil and not outsiders Raja Habob Jalib (

        1. Thanks for your appreciation, please do share and subscribe to our blog.

  16. Khwaja Adnan Ali says:

    Impressive discussion on the history of the Sudhans with multiple references to get a more plausible assessment of history of the tribe/ clan. Admirable indeed.

    On conversion of Kashmiri Brahmins to Islam, I had also read something on Wikipedia (surely not the best source of history) about a Sikandar ‘Butshikan’ Shah Miri who ruled Kashmir for 20+ years toward the end of 14th century, and kind of in Aurangzeb-style, forced conversions in the valley.

    Any further reference on that would be interesting too.

    1. Thanks for reading the research. The Sikandar Butshikan reference is useful but the history in between is missing.
      Thanks for the tip

  17. qaisarrashid says:

    Kindly provide the evidence to the claim that “Sudhan DNA tests in recent times show the origin of these people is mostly around Kashmir and Indus Valley rivers, that is, northwest India, but not Afghanistan or Central Asia at all.”

    Kindly inform us who has done that genetic testing? How many Sudhans were tested and how many non-Sudhans were tested? Which research institute or diagnostic lab did that? Where is the result of the tests? Where is the DNA genetic report.

    You have also written that “The Sudhan gene pool has been mixed with that of several rulers that took over Srinagar Kashmir like the Durrani, Turks, Sikh, Greek, Europeans, Eurasians, and even Bengalis. This also shows up in the DNA reports as a very small percentage.”

    Kindly provide evidence to support your claim. Post the evidence on this website.

    1. Evidence is in the blog please.

    2. Exactly your claims are right. This article is not showing the true picture of the story. I am from a Sudhan tribe and still unaware of the research which writer claimed that conducted on us. It’s a request to the writer of this article please don’t mix our tribe history with the other so called Indian/Subcontinent tribes.

  18. Keep up the good work the books available have created somewhat confusion on the origination of the Tribe.
    I believe we ought to carry DNA and ancestry research.

    1. Thanks for reading it. Do share

  19. Dear Writer,
    I have read your write up with interest. I would like to ask you the following question:

    In Sept/Oct 1947, why did the Sudhan rebels of Poonch rushed to the tribal area of Pakistan to get support? (and they got an overwhelming support, both men and material to fight against the Dogra army).

    1. Sudhan and even the other hill tribes like Gujjar never got along with the rulers of Kashmir Valley since the Mughal times.

      They have always been getting support from Tribal Pathans who were opposed to Mughals too.

      However, thanks for reading the post and if you have any more evidence, please do post it

      1. qaisarrashid says:

        The conclusion of your write up is that Sudhan is neither a Rajpoot nor a Sadozai tribe and that it is perhaps a lost stranded tribe of Brehamn fighters. On multiple bases including genealogy, physical appearance and cultural habits, you have researched to exclude the Sudhans from the Sadozais and the Rajpoots, but you have not done any research based on similar criteria to include the Sudhans in the category of Brehmans. Instead, you have excluded two categories to conclude that they must belong to the third category. This seems a premature and unsatisfactory conclusion. Kindly trace a relationship (based on the aforementioned three broad criteria) to let us know how far the Sudhans are similar to the Brehmans.

        1. Thank you for your response Dr Qaisar Sb
          1. There is too much mention of “Sud” and “Sudhan” word in Hindu Text to just discount it from Sudhan Tribe history. Also, Brahmins were the custodian of texts. I have concluded based on indirect evidence. The Sudhan obsession for being fair colored is also a Brahmin trait.
          2. Pathan Tribals have helped whenever there was a religious cause, I will take some time to find evidence. There was serious trouble in 1675 when Mughals converted a Hindu Brahmin tribe in Kashmir.

          1. qaisarrashid says:

            1. If the Sudhans belonged to Brehamans, it is not possible that the latter abandoned the former to their own fate. What are other Brehmanic tribes deserted by the Brehmans?
            2. The absence of any relationship of the Sudhans with Rajputs and Sadozais does not mean that the Brehmans could be an automatic choice. How can you make the Brehmans a default option?
            3. It is difficult to accept that Pathan tribals were interested in Kashmir and that they were available to lay down their lives for a religious cause in Kashmir. You must cite several examples to show the trend and inclination. One isolated event in 1675 cannot be cited as an example for an event that took place almost three centuries later in 1947. Where are other examples in this regard?

          2. 1. I agree
            2. I have replied to this previously
            3. Pathans are very zealous in Islamic causes.

          3. qaisarrashid says:

            1. Kindly rephrase point 1 to elucidate it further. Moreover, how have you made colour or any obsession with colour a point of mark to associate a tribe with another tribe or race?
            2. 1675 is an isolated event which does not qualify for being the reason for the raid of tribal pathans after three centuries in 1947. Kindly cite more examples to substantiate your point.

          4. Could you kindly explain how is the pathan tribesmen war relevant to Sudhan ancestory?

      2. qaisarrashid says:

        In your reply to my earlier comments, you have written that the Sudhans had always been getting support from Tribal Pathans who were opposed to the Mughals. To support this stance, kindly cite at least three examples to elucidate the point that each time (before or during the Mughal rule) the Sudhans were in trouble, they sought the help of the tribal Pathans.

        1. Thank you for responding. I have replied in other reply.

          Do share evidence if on Sudhan History if you have any and subscribe, sir

          1. qaisarrashid says:

            Your reply is insufficient to convince me. Kindly come up with further explanation.

          2. Please read the evidence again. There is reason to believe

      3. Aamer Hayat says:

        There is no evidence to suggest that freedom fighters from Poonch ever requested support from tribal or other Pakhtoon people. The call for Jihad was sounded in all areas of Pakistan only “after” the War of independence in Kashmir got started by the Poonch tribals. It was a general information spread throughout the land, not any request. The Khan of Toru in Mardan was probably the first Pakhtoon elder who was quick to assemble his Lashkar. More Pakhtoon Lashkars were assembled and brought to reinforce the liberation forces under the arrangements of GHQ. Volunteers from Pak Army were also allowed to leave their regular units and join the liberation forces. Pathan Lashkars joined the War in the battle of Mirpur and beyond.
        Here, it has to be acknowledged that Pahari speaking tribes like Dhoond Abbasi and Satti were the first to support the freedom fighters of Poonch. They were a part of the plan from day one. They generously participated in collection of money to buy weapons and ammunition which was purchased from Darra Adamkhel. Later these Pahari speaking tribals fought side by side of the Pahari speaking Poonch tribals in the War of liberation of Kashmir.

        1. Yes, very plausible explanation sir.

          1. qaisarrashid says:

            If you were to rely on someone else’s explanation, why you did not do it before writing the article. You have done research and you should not seek crutches from others to support you.

          2. Thanks for reading Dr Sb. But,
            Please give evidence to counter logic

        2. qaisarrashid says:

          There is a difference between any support coming from a suburban area and far area.

        3. qaisarrashid says:

          “There is no evidence to suggest that freedom fighters from Poonch ever requested support from tribal or other Pakhtoon people. ” Inform about this fact to the descendants of Nehru and make a submission to the UNSC.

          1. Aamer Sahib is correct in saying that the tribals were not only Pathans, they were also Sutti and Dhoond hill tribes

  20. Aamer Hayat says:

    An excellent and praiseworthy objective research work. I haven’t seen a more consolidated effort on this topic.
    I want to add one more important fact, which should also be thought about.
    The Pathan or Afghan tribes use “Zai” as a suffix to name their sub tribes, like Ali zai, Popalzai, Saddozai etc. While names of Sudhan sub tribes are Sungral, Mungral, Makwal, Sainsyal, Gaawal, etc.
    I will add a few more points later …

    1. Thanks for reading my work.

      Your input on Tribal name suffix is very true. I will add it to the research.

      Do highlight other evidences, if you find any.

      1. Hello, adding to his information as provided above, he is very correct in the sense that Pashtun tribes are often identified with the use of the suffix ‘zai’ but also with the use of ‘khel’ which is also present in the subgroups of these tribes eg Ahmed Shah Abdali belonged to the Sarmast Khel of the Saddozai tribe. There is no evidence to provide Sudhans of Kashmir utilise these words for their subgroups. Saddo Khan, born in 1558, has already had his entire family tree up until the 21st century compiled and there is no evidence of any descendants settling in Kashmir. Even if there had been, it would make no sense for a few individuals to have over a million descendants in the Kashmir region, when the entire Saddozai tribe only number a few hundred/thousand in Afghanistan/Pakistan altogether. Thanks! Interested to know about their real genetic origins!

        1. Thank you, Ms Amna for the valuable input.

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